Making Democracy Work

Ranked Choice Voting

BREAKING NEWS: Poliquin announces he is giving up legal challenge to ranked-choice voting, as reported in the Bangor Daily News, December 24, 2018.

What's Happening Right Now

On Friday, December 21, 2018, a three-judge panel of the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit issued a one-sentence denial of Rep. Bruce Poliquin's request for an emergency injunction blocking the certification of Jared Golden's election to the House of Representatives.

U.S. District Judge Lance Walker issued his final judgement on Thursday, December 13, 2018, in the lawsuit brought by Bruce Poliquin's re-election campaign challenging the constitutionality of RCV in the November 2018 Congressional election. In his strongly-worded opinion (click here to read it in full), Judge Walker denied the Poliquin campaign's request for a permanent injunction against the use of RCV and found for the defendant, Maine Secretary of State Matthew Dunlap. Read the statement from LWVME on the court's rejection of the case,. On December 18, 2018, Bruce Poliquin appealed Judge Walker's decision to the U.S. Court of Appeals for the First Circuit. You can read his initial filing here. On Wednesday, December 19, 2018, Jared Golden filed this brief in response to Bruce Poliquin's appeal, and Maine Secretary of State Matthew Dunlap submitted this brief, opposing the motion for a permanent injunction.

The Maine Secretary of State declared a winner on Thursday, November 15, in an historic election: the first congressional race in the nation to be decided by ranked choice voting.

The Poliquin campaign had filed suit in federal court on November 13 challenging the use of RCV in his Congressional Election. His request for a temporary restraining order to halt the RCV count was denied just a short time before the final result was announced. You can read Judge Walker's opinion denying the motion here. It's very strong.

Meanwhile, the constitutional case went forward. Arguments were heard in federal district court in Bangor on December 5. You can read the complaint here and the request for a preliminary injunction here. Briefs filed in opposition include those from:

Statement from LWVME on lawsuit seeking permanent injunction in CD2 RCV implementation, press release, November 13, 2018.

In the November 6 general election, we were the first state in the country to use ranked choice voting to elect these offices:

U.S. Senate
U.S. Congress District 1 and District 2

The races for U.S. Senate and U.S. Congress in District 1 were won by outright majority on the first round.

The race for U.S. Congress in District 2 went through an RCV count. Here's official information from the Secretary of State.

We DID NOT use ranked choice voting to elect these offices:

Governor of Maine
Maine State Senate
Maine State House of Representatives
District Attorney, County Commissioner and other offices

Find more information about ranked choice voting from the Maine Secretary of State

How Does Ranked Choice Voting Work?

Ranked choice voting lets voters rank their choices based on individual preference. First choices are counted, and if no candidate has a majority of the vote, an "instant runoff" occurs in which the candidate with the least support is eliminated. Voters that picked the eliminated candidate as their first choice have their vote counted for their next choice. In a three-person race, we now have a winner with majority support in the final round of tabulation. In a race with more than three candidates, this process is repeated until one candidate has a majority. Read more about it in RCV Basics.

Ranked Choice Voting Sample Ballot for Maine

Watch this cool video that shows how RCV works.

News You Can Use

There's more from the Secretary of State at their Resources for Ranked-choice Voting web page.

Elections matter. Let's work together to get this right.

Read more about the legislative and legal history.

What We're Doing to Help

The League of Women Voters of Maine calls for faithful implementation of RCV for Maine elections and for allocating any resources that might be needed.

Elections matter; let's get to work; let's get this right.

The League has issued a set of Guiding Principles for RCV, applying core election standards to upcoming ranked choice voting elections in Maine.

Read the League's September 27 cover letter to the Secretary of State and our comments on the proposed rules for implementing RCV elections, RCV recounts, and plurality recounts.

Read the League's April 6 cover letter to the Secretary of State and our comments on the proposed rules for implementing RCV.

Read Our Legislative Testimony on This and Other Priority Issues

Read more about the legislative and legal background.

Why is RCV Considered as an Alternative to our Current System?

Our current voting system, plurality voting, works well when there are only two candidates because one of them is guaranteed to win with majority support. But three and four-way races among competitive candidates are common in Maine and can lead to results where the winner fails to receive a majority of the votes cast (50% + 1). Dating back to 1974, the winner has failed to receive a majority vote in 9 of the last 11 gubernatorial elections in Maine. In 5 of those races, the elections were won with less than 40 percent support. Given the frequency with which this was happening in Maine elections, the League of Women Voters of Maine convened a study in 2008 to consider alternative voting systems. That study concluded in 2011 with an endorsement of ranked choice voting as the best way to ensure a majority vote in competitive, single-seat, multi-candidate elections.

What are the Benefits of Ranked Choice Voting?

✓ Gives voters more meaningful choices: Ranked choice voting allows candidates from outside the two major parties to compete. It helps create a richer dialogue on the issues and increases the diversity of views available for voters to consider.

✓ Eliminates spoilers and strategic voting: Ranked choice voting allows voters to support their favorite candidate without worrying that they might "throw their vote away," or worse, split their votes with like‐minded voters and unintentionally help elect the candidate they like the least.

✓ Reduces negative campaigning: Candidates running in ranked choice elections must ask for second and, sometimes, third choice rankings. Voters are less likely to rank a candidate highly who is negative toward their preferred candidate.

✓ Reduces the influence of money in politics: Campaigns and special interest groups spend a lot of money on negative advertising. By making negative advertising less effective, ranked choice voting reduces the need for, and influence of, money in politics.

Where is RCV being Used?

✓ More than 50 colleges and universities use ranked choice voting for some or all of their student government elections.

✓ 11 cities across the United States currently use ranked choice voting to elect city officers, including Portland, Maine. Also San Francisco, Cambridge, and Minneapolis.

✓ 5 states provide military and overseas voters with ranked choice ballots to participate in federal runoff elections.

✓ 4 countries, including Australia, Ireland, Malta, and New Zealand, use ranked choice voting in federal elections.

✓ Numerous public and private sector organizations, including the Academy of Motion Pictures Arts and Science, use ranked choice voting for their elections.

Read more about who uses RCV.

Additional Information